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paachan tantr

paachan tantr :– bhojan sabhee sajeevon kee moolabhoot aavashyakataon mein se ek hai. hamaare bhojan veph mukhy avayav kaarbohaidret, proteen evan vasa hain. alp maatra mein vitaamin evan khanij lavanon kee bhee aavashyakata hotee hai. bhojan se oorja evan kaee kachche kaayik padaarth praapt hote hain jo vriddh evan ootakon veph marammat veph kaam aate hain. jo jal ham grahan karate hain, vah upaapachayee prakriyaon mein mahatvapoorn bhoomika nibhaata hai evan shareer veph nirjaleekaran ko bhee rokata hai. hamaara shareer bhojan mein upalabdh jaiv-rasaayanon ko unaveph mool roop mein upayog nahin kar sakata. atah paachan tantra mein chhote anuon mein vibhaajit kar saadharan padaarthon mein parivartit kiya jaata hai. jatil poshak padaarthon ko avashoshan yogy saral roop mein parivartit karane kee isee kriya ko paachan kahate hain aur hamaara paachan tantra ise yaantrik evan raasaayanik vidhiyon dvaara sampann karata hai. adhyayan kee drshti se manushy ke paachan tantr ko do bhaagon mein baata ja sakata he-

1. aahaaranaal (alimaintary chanal) 2. sambaddh paachan granthiya (digaistivai glands)

1.aahaaranaal (alimaintary chanal) :– aahaar naal agr bhaag mein mukh se praarambh hokar pashch bhaag mein sthit guda dvaara baahar kee or khulatee hai. aahaar naal veph mukhy bhaag mukh guha, graasanalee, aamaashay, aant hai. a. mukh guha:– manushy ka mukh ek daraar ke samaan hota hai, jo jabadon ke madhy mein sthit ek guha mein khulata hai, jise mukhaguha kahate hain. manushy mein bhojan ka paachan mukh se hee praarambh ho jaata hai, mukh mein laar mein do enjaim ‘‘taayalin evan laisojaim’’ paaye jaate hai. mukhaguha ek chhotee graasanalee mein khulatee hai

b. graasanalee:– yah 25chm lambee sakare nalee hai. jo vaayu evan bhojan, donon ka hee path hai. upaasthimay ghaantee dhakkan, bhojan ko nigalate samay shvaasanalee mein pravesh karane se rokatee hai. grasika (oaisophagus) ek patalee lambee nalee hai, jo gardan, vaksh evan madhyapat se hote hue pashch
bhaag mein ‘j’ aakaar k thaileenuma aamaashay mein khulatee hai. grasika ka aamaashay mein khulana ek pesheey aamaashay-grasika avarodhniee dvaara niyantrit hota hai.

ch. aamaashay:– 30mee. lamba thailaanuma sanrachana hota hai. isakee chaudaee bhojan ke maatra ke anusaar
ghatatee-badhatee rahatee hai. aamaashay kee deevaar mein anek granthiyaan paayee jaatee hai, jinhen jathar ganrathiya (gastrich gland ph-1-3-5) kahate hai. ye granthiyaan amaashay mein jathar ras (gastrich juichai) ka sraavan karatee hai. jathar ras paachak hota hai. isamen hchl (hydrochhlorich achid) ke atirikt renin evan pepsin naamak enjaim hota hai. aamaashay mein bhojan pahunchane par hchl se milakar taayalin ko nishkriy kar deta hai va tatha bhojan ko amleey bana deta hai. tatha hchl haanikaarak jeevaanuon ko nasht kar deta hai. pepsin bhojan mein upasthit proteen ko pahale protaiasais mein fir paiptonais mein badal dete hai. isee prakaar renin injaim doodh mein ghulanasheel proteen keseen chasaiin) ko chalchium parachachinatai mein badal detee hai. inake atirikt amaashay myoosin bhee sraavit karatee hai. jo jathar ras ki amleey prabhaav ko kam karata hai yah bhojan ko chikana banaata hai. d. aant:– maanav kee samast aant ko do bhaagon mein vibhaajit kiya gaya hai i. chhotee aant :– chhotee aant ka praarambhik bhaag jo angrejee ke akshar ‘u’ kee tarah muda rahata hai, jise grahanee ya pakvaashay (duodainum) kahalaata hai. isaka shesh bhaag 30chm lamba bhaag ‘‘iliyam (illium) kahalaata hai. iliyam kee deevaar kee bheetaree satah par anguliyon ke samaan rachanaen paayee jaatee hai, jinhen aantra rasaankur (intaistinal villi) kahate hai. ii. badee aant:– kshudraantra badee aant mein khulatee hai jo andhnaal cholon, vrhadanaatr aur malaashay se banee hotee hai. andhnaal ek chhota thaila hai jisamen vuphachh sahajeeveey sookshmajeev rahate hain. andhnaal se ek angulee jaisa prarvadh, parisheshika nikalata hai jo ek avasheshee ang hai. andhnaal, badee aant mein khulatee hai. vrhadanaatra teen bhaagon mein vibhaajit hota hai- aarohee, anuprasth ev avarohee bhaag. avarohee bhaag malaashay mein khulata hai jo maladvaar (anus) dvaara baahar khulata hai. illaium va cholon ke jod par ek vaalv paaya jaata hai, jise ‘‘iliyoseekalavaalv’’ kahate hai. yah vaalv bhojan ko vaapas chhotee aant mein nahin jaane deta hai. kshudraantra se bacha hua apachit bhojan badee aant mein pravesh karata hai badee aant ke deevaaron mein bhojan ke kuchh lavanon tatha jal ka avashoshan ho jaata hai. shesh apachit hua bhojan mal ke roop mein raichtum mein ekatr hota rahata hai. tatha samay-samay par mal dvaar (anus) se baahar nikaal diya jaata hai.

paachan granthiyaan:– aahaar naal se sambandhti paachan ganrathiyon mein laar ganrathiyaan, yakrt aur agnaashay shaamil hain. i.laar granthi ii. yakrt (livair) iii. agnaashay (panchraiasai)

i. laar granthi :– laar ka nirmaan teen jodee ganrathiyon dvaara hota hai. ye hain gaal mein karnapoorv( parotid gland), nichale jabade mein adhejambh/avachibukeey (sub-maxillary gland) tatha jihna k neeche sthit adhejihva (sublingual glands) . in granthiyon se laar mukhaguha mein pahanuchatee hai. laar mein lagabhag 99% jal, lagabhag 1% injaim hote hai. isamen taayalin (ptyalin) evan laisojaim naamak enjaim hota hai. laar kuchh tatv jaise- laid ;sheeshaaddh, markareee va aayodaid ka sraavan karatee hai.

ii.yakrt (livair) :– yah shareer kee sabase badee granthee hai, jo 1.5-2kg vajan ka hota hai. yah udar mein madhyapat veph theek neeche sthit hota hai aur isakee do paaliyaan (lobais) hotee hain. yakrt paalikaen yakrt kee sanrachanaatmak aur kaaryaatmak ikaiyaan hain jinaveph andar yakrt koshikaen rajju kee
tarah vyavasthit rahatee hain. pratyek paalika sanyojee ootak kee ek patalee parat se dhakee hotee hai jise glisans vephapasool kahate hain. yakrt kee koshikaon se pitt ka ddaav hota hai jo yakrt nalika se hote hue ek patalee pesheey thailee- pittaashay mein saandrit evan jama hota hai. pittaashay kee nalika yakrteey nalika se milakar ek mool pitt vaahinee banaatee hai. pittaashayee nalika evan agnaashayee nalika, donon milakar yakrtagnaashayee vaahinee dvaara grahanee mein khulatee hai. yakrt livai bilai, haiparin ka sraavan karatee hai. yakrt vitamin a ka sanshleshan va a,ch,d ka sanchay karatee hai. yakrt pitt varnak tatha yoorika ka nirmaan karata hai. yoorika nirmaan kee prakriya mein yakrt amoniya (nh3) ko yooriya mein badal deta hai.

iii.agnaashay (panchraiasai) :– yah maanav shareer ka doosaree sabase badee granthi hai. yah shareer ke ek maatra granthi hai. jo bahih ddaavee aur antah ddaavee, donon hee granthiyon kee tarah kaary karatee hai. agnaashay kee koshikaon ke beech-beech mein kuchh peele rang kee koshikaen samooh ke roop mein vyavasthit rahatee hai. jinhen laingarahains ke dveep “islaits of langairhans” kahate hai. laingarahains se insuline glukegone evan sometostetin (somaiatostation) naamak hormon nikalata hai.