Class 10 Geography Chapter 1 Resources and Development part 2

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class 10Class 10 Geography Chapter 1 Resources and Development   part 2

Class 10 Geography Chapter 1 Resources and Development

Explain resources planning in India
Resources planning is complex process which involve
Identifying resources in different state in the country
Preparation of Framework for implementation of resources development scheme
Scariest coordination in resources development scheme national development plan

There are many areas in the country which are rich in economically backward areas but in the country there are some
States which are economically developed when there is a shortage of resources
Sources can be contribute in the development of state only when appropriative technology development and institutional change are made in various stage of colonization India has experienced all these
Development in India was not only based on the availability of resources but it also contribute to the quality of resources and historical experience
Conservation of resources
Irrational constitution and over utilisation of resources may lead to sico-economic economic and information problems to overcome this problem resources conservation at various level all the important
By whom resources conservation was advacated for the first time
At the international level the club of Rome advocated resources conservation for the first time in a more Systematic way in 1968
Write the name of Schumacher’s book
Name the writer of small in beauty
Name of Schumacher’s book was small in beautiful
Schumacher’s wrote the book Small In beautiful
When brundland commission provide it’s report
In 1987 it published the report of sustainable development this report was published in a book entitled Our Common Future
Land resources
Land is the natural resources of utmost important but it is a limited resource is therefore it is important to use the available land for various purpose with careful planning
India has land under a variety of relief futures namely mountains plateau Plains and island
About 43% of the land area is plain and 30% of the land area is mountains and about 27% of the area of the country is plateau region

Land utilisation

Land use pattern in India
The use of land is determined both by physical factors such as topography climates soil types as well as human factors such as population density technically capability and cultural and traditional etc
Total geographical area of India is 3.28 million square km
The land under permanent pressure has also decreased
The pattern of net down area varies greatly from one state to another
Forest area in the country is for lower than the desired 33% of geographical area as it was outlined in the National Forest policy 1952
A part of the land is termed as waste land and land put two other non-agriculture uses
Continuous use of land over a long period of time without taking appropriative measure to conserve and manage it has resulted in land degradation
Land Degradation
At present there are about 130 million hectares of degraded land in India
Some human activities such as deforestation overgrazing mining and calling to have contributed significancantal in land degradation
Rigning sites are abandoned after excavation working complete living scars and traces of over burdening
Deforestation due to mining have caused servere and deforestation
Over irrigation is responsible for the degradation due to water logging leading to increase slinity and alkalinity in the soil
The mineral processing generate use quantity of dust in the atmosphere
Industrial effluents as waste have become a major source of land and water pollution
Land conservation measures
Afforestation proper management of grazing planting of shelter belt of plants control on overgrazing stabilization of Land by growing thorny bushes proper management of wasteland control of mining activities proper discharge disposal of Industrial effluents and wastes
Soil as resources
Soil is the medium of plant growth and support different type of Living Organism
Soil is the living system
It take million of year to form soil
Relief parent rock or Bedrock climate vegetation and other forms of life and time are important factors in the formation of soil
Soil consists of organic humus and inorganic material
The soil of India are classified in different type of as following
Alluvial soil
Soil is most wildly separate and important soil
Alluvial soil consists of Ages properties of sand stil and clay
Soil are described on the basis of their age according to their age Alluvial soil can be classified as old alluvial Bangar and new alluvial soil Khadar
Alluvial soil as a whole are very fertile
Alluvial soil are ideal for the growth of sugarcane paddy wheat and others cereals and pulses crops
Black soil
The soil are also black in colour and are also known as regur soil
Black soil is ideal for growing cotton
Black soil are made up of extremely find that is clayey material they are well known for their capacity of hold moisture
They are rich in soil nutrition
This soil are sticky so tilled immediately after the first shower or during the pre monsoon period

Red and yellow soil
Red soil develop on crystamic igneous rock
This rocks developed a reddish colour due to diffusion of iron in crystalline and Metamorphic rock it looks yellow when it occurs in a hydrate form
Laterite soil
Laterite has been derived from the Latin word later which means brick
The laterite soil develops due to alternate wet and dry season
This soil is the result of instant leaching
Lateritic soil are mostly deep to very deep acidic pH<6.0 generally different in plant nutrients
It is generally humus poor
The soil is very useful for growing tea and coffee
Arid soil
Arid soil range from red to brown in colour
They are generally Sandy in texture and saline in nature
Soil lack humus and moisture
The lower Horizon of soil are occupied by Kankar
The conquer layer formation in the bottom origin restrict in infiltration of water
Forest soil
The soil are found in hilly and mountain area where sufficient rainforest world available
The soil texture varrier according to the mountains environment where they were formed
The soils are acidic with low humus content in hilly area and fertilc on the river terraces and alluvial fans
Soil erosion
The denudation of the soil cover and subsequent washing down in described as soil erosion
Gullies
The running water cuts show the clearly soil and made deep channel are called gullies
Badland
The land become unfit for cultivation this is known as bad land
In Chambal basin search land are called ravines
Sheet erosion
Sometimes water flow associate over a large area down a slope in such case the top soil is waste away this is known as sheet erosion
Wind erosion
Wind blows loose soil of flat or sloping land known as wind erosion
Soil erosion is also caused due to defective method of farming
Soil conservation
There are some ways for soil conservation as following
Counter plugghing Terrace farming strip cropping shelterbelts
Counter plugghing plugghing along the counter line can declared the flow of water down the slopes this is called counter plugghing
Terrace farming steps can be cut out on the slopes making terraces terrestrial farming reditics erosion
Strip cropping strips of grass are left to grow between the crops this brakes up the force of the wind this method is known as strip cropping
Shelterbelts planting lines of tree to create shelter row of such tree are called shelterbelts
This shelterbelts help to the stabilization of sand dunes and desert