Chapter 1 Agricultural Management *
Short answer type questions:
Q 1 What is meant by crop?
Ans. When some type of plants are grown on a larger scale, they are collectively known as a crop.
Q 2 Give the examples each of Rabi, Kharif and Zayad crops.
Ans. Two examples of Rabi crop:- wheat, barley, gram.
Two examples in Kharif crop: maize, ground nut, sesame.
Two examples of Zayed crop :- muskmelon, watermelon, cucumber.
Q 3. What do you mean by Threshing ?
Ans The process of separation of grains from chaff is called threshing.
Q 4. What are the means of irrigation ?
Ans Fulfillment of requirement of water of crops by various Artificial means time to time is called irrigation.
* Long answer type questions:
Q 1. What are the modern methods of irrigation ? Describe.
Ans The modern methods of irrigation are:
1. Sprinkler System:– This system is more useful on the uneven land where sufficient water is not available. The perpendicular pipes, having rotating nozzles on top, are joined to the main pipeline at regular intervals. When water is allowed to flow through the main pipe under pressure with the help of a pump, it escapes from the rotating nozzles. It gets sprinkled on the crop as if it is raining. Sprinkler is very useful for sandy soil.
2. Drip System :– In this system, the water falls drop by drop just at the position of the roots. So it is called drip system. In this system, water is not wasted at all. It is a boon in regions where availability of water is poor.
Q. 2. What are the problems faced by a farmer during agricultural practices ? What measures would you suggest to overcome these problems.
Ans. The problems faced by a farmer during agricultural practices are :
1. Weeds :- Unwanted plants that grow with crop plants in the field, these undesirable plants are called weeds. They grow with croch plants and do not allow nutrients to reach crop plants.
Methods to remove weeds
1. Uprooting :- It includes removal of weeds by uprooting them physically
2 By chemical process :- Weeds are also controlled by using certain chemicals called weedicides.
2. Natural Disaster :– Farmers bear agriculture losses due to flood, drought, cold, fire etc. Following ways used to avoid natural disaster are
1. To avoid floods, use measures for passage of water.
2. Adequate irrigation during drought.
3. Safety measures from fire.
3. Crop diseases :– Crop disease is the main problem in agriculture, crops suffer from pest attack, bacteria, virus, infected diseases étc. Due to these diseases, leaves are getting destroyed, fruits are spoiled, branches dried etc.
* Uses of insecticides, fungicides, pesticides etc .
* From Animals :- Strange animals enter in fields and destroy the crops. So crops are getting devastated.
Measures to be taken
* Use of protective fence, to avoid this situation.