Class 9 Chapter 3 Poverty

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Class 9 Chapter 3 Poverty 

Class Chapter 3 Povertyas a challenge now in a layman’s language we can say if we want to define poverty it will vary from country to country but in simple terms we can say the availability of the basic three amenities that’s the roti Kaplan makan the food shelter and clothing are the essential parameters for any individual now when it comes to India you have a kind of huge population which lives below poverty line so nearly one-third of the world’s poor lie in India of which you have everyone in element child that is working and everyone and four percent that is pour half of the Chinese under five years are due to malnutrition now you have some of the pockets which are really poor we have the B model States on you can say Rajasthan Madhya Pradesh Uttar Pradesh Bihar and Orissa this card and West Bengal are the major states which are affected by kind of poverty however on the other side you have states like Maharashtra and you have the southern states which are flourishing well in comparison to the northern the streets again India is only nation which is one of the single largest concentration which has the single largest concentration for poor in the world and the 2016 World Wealth Report also explains that in India you have the most unequal distribution of line with nearly 60% of the total wealth accumulated by merely one percent of the top people so you have a kind of huge income gap or end gum disparity that occurs now if we move from one nation to another nation there is no fixed or one definition that we can explain or that can help you


understand poverty a person who does not own a car in the United States could be considered as a poor but on the other hand car in India is considered to be a luxury so there is no one common definition that you can explain throughout the world however there have been efforts to bring all the nations at one parity and explain the kind of minimum base for the availability or to define the poverty so it was decided and smaller 1.25 per day as the minimum requirement now in India you have various definitions that have come up over the time period it has started with a consumption of calorie then it’s switched on to income so there has been kind of food consumption income then now the most recent ones are focused on the concept of social indicators the availability and the schooling facilities the health indicators and there is another term that we would discuss is the social exclusion now based on calories it is believed that covered 2,400 calories per day for rural area in 2100 for urban area would be the optimum since rural people require more of physical work to be done they require more of calorie consumption based on income it was de marketed in 2000 as rupees 328 in rural areas per month and the piece 454 in urban areas per month now for a family of five it was given as




rupees 1644 rural areas and 2000 urban areas these indicators were brought after an extensive survey done by NSA so that is the National Sample Survey organization now as we said World Bank define the international poverty line based on the purchasing power parity there is a PPP it was 1.25 per day in 71 dandekar and on define based on the calorie consumption that we have talked about in 2001 multi-dimensional poverty index was given with said nearly 6.25 weight is given to the sets that a person who and 33% given to the education and the years is spent in school so this was another dimension based on which poverty was analyzed then it shifted on to income level and consumption later on as we said there were focus on social indicators and finally there was the idea of social inclusion that came up with said where where is excluded from the social equality or not so identify the areas where you have toward we who are excluded from the social equality and this social exclusion is considered both as a cause and a consequence so you can say because of the social exclusion there has been rise in the case of poverty I since a person is poor as a consequence is socially excluded from the society so it’s a kind of both cause and consequence for the same problem now you have this world map which shows the areas with less than dollar 1.25 per day and you can see most of those Mountain yellow the well-to-do nations with less than 2% which record under such case however the areas found in light blue are the areas of severe distress so you have a kind of high problem where more than 40% of the people do not earn less they do not earn a kind of dollar 1.25 per day now what are the issues related to poverty because of poverty you have kind of problems related to landlessness the size of family affects the poverty level then you have illiteracy the level of education the health facilities the malnutrition child labor and you can say joblessness helplessness and landlessness are all related to poverty however if we talk about certain groups in the society you have the average Indian poverty ratio that comes around 26 however if you come up to specific sections or the vulnerable groups you have nearly 51 percent poverty that are seen in strudel drives then you have the urban casual a versus 50 percent then you have the kind of rural agricultural a person should have caste which also contribute much higher percentage than the average percentage that we have as a result you have problems that are related to food security


so you have hunger a lack of shelter lack of clean water and sanitation facilities again poor people might be ill treated so Gandhiji had rightly said India would be truly independent only men the poorest of the poor is free from human suffering so it’s the basic focus was on the poverty since the time of independence and we have been working hard to work around the issue of poverty so there have been with many anti-poverty measures that have been taken now what are the basic causes so I can say it is started all with the colonial era so most of the well third ring or I would say the dream which took from India was the main cause of poverty so the rural economy was affected most of the resources that we had were taken away by the British so there was with a rise in population there is heavy pressure on the land it creates problems related to unemployment and underemployment there is not enough industrialization to accommodate people then there are social factors economic policies that affect kind of certain sectors badly and there has been problems of poverty which are seen rising in certain sectors with technological advancement there is less requirement for men and power again there has been unequal distribution of asset as we have talked about the recent study where sixty percent of the wealth is accumulated by only 1% of the top Indian population so you have the lack of land resources so all these are some of the major causes of poverty now poverty acts like a vicious cycle so what happens if a person is poor there would be lack of education and lack of jobs that would lead to exploitation by the employer which would lead to instability in the economic setup again as a consequence there would be unhygenic surroundings there would be malnutrition issue and economic drainage would take place finally the person would again fall into the the kind of loan issues and finance issues as a result the poverty would further tend to increase so it’s a kind of vicious circle that goes along on and on however if we compare from 1993 to 2012 we can see that the poverty in the rule areum’s has decreased by nearly 50% from 50% that existed in 93 to merely 25% in 2011 similarly there has been a significant drop in urban and the total population that could be seen


here so poverty is definitely declining in India now if you look on to the state wise picture previously Orissa and Bihar will consider to be the worst of states in case of the poverty analysis however in the recent decades from 2004 to 2012 we have a study and this shows in Orissa you have the poverty that is decreased from 57% to 32% a 25-point decrease and similar decrease has been seen in Bihar from 54% to 33% so the only 22 percent decline in the popular in the poverty or the people below poverty line again the best of the states are go back era la imagen Pradesh Punjab in Pondicherry and the worst of the states include the states of Jharkhand Manipur Arunachal Pradesh and Bihar again you have the Vomero states out of which only Rajasthan is doing better than the national average so except all four are below the national average again there has been a decline in the rural poverty from 326 to 217 and so is the case in urban now there have been different factors in the different states which have led to increase in the standard of living or kind of better income groups will understand those keys rankings so in the case of Punjab and Haryana it was because of the increase in the agriculture so it was better agriculture better employment and getting people out of poverty in Kerala it was due to increase in the human resource development West Bengal it was mainly due to the land reforms the land reforms that have taken place and another predation tabouleh was mainly due to the public distribution system or the availability of basic amenities to each and every individual if you look onto global scenario again there has been declined from 28 percent to the early 21 percent in 2001 however China’s southeast Southeast Asia are the worst affected states but these states are again these stations are again doing better because of the economic growth and more investment in human resource development in China alone there has been declining by nearly one foot so you have one third so you have a kind of it was six hundred million and it became nearly two hundred million in 2001 so nearly a kind of 2/3 population is out from poverty then you have the sub-saharan Africa which



has shown an increase in the poverty lines and again the Millennium Development Goals talks about decreasing the people who are less then who are less then who are surviving at a wage of less than one dollar per day to nearly half of the existing number so let’s say if it is presently hundred they Eve to bring it down to 50 by 2015 so that’s one of the Millennium Development Goals that was set up and based on that you have seen advancements in the poverty line now this diagram shows the people living in poverty line are below the poverty line which was defined internationally so as you can see there has been a drastic decrease in the number in case of China which has shown a sharp decline you have sub-saharan Africa matters which has increased East Asia and Pacific and South Asia are also doing well better however the most developments in human resource was seen in case of China and East Asia and the Pacific regions the next is anti-poverty measures now definitely the best way is to provide employment once you have a kind of employee there is a security and that security will definitely bring more of kind of economic growth and get people out of the poverty trap so you have better education better agriculture and more investment in human resource that is required as a result there are many anti-poverty programs that were started the common ones that we’ll be discussing today are the first one the energy a that is the National Rural Employment Guarantee that provides hundred days of guaranteed employment to every rural household in the two hundred districts and later it was extended to six hundred districts and it sought to expand further but this tip that if you do not get employment within fifteen days there would be a kind of daily unemployment allowance that would be provided the next is the national food for work program that talks about the 150 most backward districts are providing people food in lieu of the world they do would be the kind of program I would be hundred percent centrally sponsored the next is frozen three Rajgarh you shine in 1993 it aimed at creating self-employment and educate unemployed youth then you have Rural Employment Guarantee program in 1995 again aimed at self employment so as you can see most of the problems of the poverty or the anti-poverty drives are have a base in the employment and the job creation the next is for ingenta gram Swaraj good Swaraj carry osha in 1999 it again assisted to were to get them above the poverty line and it was a kind of mixed help from bank credit and government subsidies that were provided finally you have the prison man three gram of the huge now in 2000 which provided the basic health and primary education facility then you have the Antho they are under OSHA and so on however the spite of the measures that have been taken place you have still many challenges that are ahead so


providing healthcare to each and every person at an affordable price providing free income education not only for the primary as it is presenting but even for the higher education and college education the upper upper primary then you have the middle education and finally the college education providing job and security to all and bringing all the genders at equality above all dignity for poor is the main aim for all the anti-poverty measures or the measures that the government is undertaking.